"Step" — A smart contract call

Recipes are composed of "Steps," which are enclosed smart contract calls. Every Step has a set of inputs that correspond to a set of outputs: Spent tokens, Output tokens, and Fees. Spent tokens and Fees are eradicated during the Step, and Output tokens will be passed into the next Step as inputs.

For example, a simple 0x Exchange Swap Step will contain a Sell Token as an input, and the outputs will include Sell Token (Spent), Buy Token (Output), and no associated Fees.

Automatic Validation

Step inputs and outputs are automatically validated to ensure that each input has associated outputs that represent the total value. There is an exception for tokens that are generated mid-Step — new token values become unvalidated Output tokens — they are simply passed to the next Step as inputs.

Annotated Example: ERC20 spender Approval

// Note that each Step/Recipe must assume a clean slate: Since it will
//   get executed in a public setting (the RAILGUN Relay Adapt Contract),
//   developers should assume that the contract does NOT have 
//   approval to spend tokens with any token contract. 
// Each Recipe should approve their tokens fresh for each user.

export class ApproveERC20SpenderStep extends Step {
  // Name and description, which appear in the recipe's stepOutputs for clarity.
  // `hasNonDeterministicOutput` is used to validate this step - if it has 
  // deterministic outputs, this means that the outputs are guaranteed, no matter 
  // if the underlying assets change in price. Examples of non-deterministic 
  // Steps include Swaps (with slippage) and Adding/Removing LP
  // (where liquidity rates are based on moving asset prices).
  readonly config = {
    name: 'Approve ERC20 Spender',
    description: 'Approves ERC20 for spender contract.',
    hasNonDeterministicOutput: false,

  // Private variables passed into the constructor.
  private readonly spender: Optional<string>;
  private readonly tokenInfo: RecipeERC20Info;
  private readonly amount: Optional<BigNumber>;

  // Note that amount is an optional parameter here. If unset, 
  // the Step will assume the maximum for approval. This is because 
  // some steps don't have deterministic input amounts 
  // (such as after a swap with slippage). 
  // For non-deterministic amounts, we'll auto-approve the maximum,
  // so we don't mistakenly underestimate the actual amount.
    spender: Optional<string>,
    tokenInfo: RecipeERC20Info,
    amount?: BigNumber,
  ) {
    this.spender = spender;
    this.tokenInfo = tokenInfo;
    this.amount = amount;

  protected async getStepOutput(
    input: StepInput,
  ): Promise<UnvalidatedStepOutput> {
    // If we can't find the spender contract, create a null output with no
    // populatedTransactions.
    if (!this.spender || this.tokenInfo.isBaseToken) {
      return createNoActionStepOutput(input);

    // These are the input parameters, passed into the step.
    const { erc20Amounts, networkName } = input;

    // This helper function filters the input erc20 amounts for a token whose address 
    // matches tokenInfo (non-case-sensitive), which is not yet approved for spending.
    // It also validates the expected balance of this token from prior Steps, 
    // if `this.amount` is provided.
    const { erc20AmountForStep, unusedERC20Amounts } =
        erc20Amount =>
          compareERC20Info(erc20Amount, this.tokenInfo) &&
          erc20Amount.approvedSpender !== this.spender,

    const contract = new ERC20Contract(erc20AmountForStep.tokenAddress);
    // If there's no amount provided, we'll approve the maximum.
    const approveAmount = this.amount ?? maxBigNumberForTransaction();

    // This is the final populated contract call, generated with the ERC20 ABI.
    const crossContractCalls: ContractTransaction[] = [];
      await contract.createSpenderApproval(this.spender, approveAmount),
    // Convert the selected input erc20 amount into the final spender-approved 
    // amount, which will be an output of this Step.
    // In a later Step in a full Recipe, we can call `getValidInputERC20Amount` 
    // (like above) to check that this input token is approved.
    const approvedERC20Amount: StepOutputERC20Amount = {
      tokenAddress: erc20AmountForStep.tokenAddress,
      decimals: erc20AmountForStep.decimals,
      isBaseToken: erc20AmountForStep.isBaseToken,
      expectedBalance: minBigNumber(
      minBalance: minBigNumber(approveAmount, erc20AmountForStep.minBalance),
      approvedSpender: this.spender,

    // Return the approved amount, as well as any unused erc20 amounts.
    // These outputs will get validated against the input amounts for this Step,
    // ensuring that no input tokens are missing in the outputs.
    // If any tokens are "spent" during the Step, you should add them 
    // to the spentERC20Amounts array.
    // Any token fees paid during the call should go in feeERC20AmountRecipients, 
    // including a string identifier for the recipient.
    return {
      spentERC20Amounts: [],
      outputERC20Amounts: [approvedERC20Amount, ...unusedERC20Amounts],
      spentNFTs: [],
      outputNFTs: input.nfts,
      feeERC20AmountRecipients: [],

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